Wine has been made in Switzerland for more than 2000 years; as in France, the spread of viticulture here during the Middle Ages was largely driven by monasteries. The wines then generally lacked flavor and body, so even domestic sales were affected by imports from the warmer regions further south – notably the Rhone Valley. The phylloxera outbreak of the 1860s hit Switzerland particularly hard and by the early 20th century the country's productive vineyard area had halved. With increasing competition from other wine regions at that time, there was little incentive for Swiss vignerons to re-establish their plantings. Today, the Swiss wine industry looks more promising, with nearly 40,000 acres (16,000ha) of vineyards producing roughly 1.1 million hL of increasingly marketable wine each vintage. The total surface area under vine actually saw a small but consistent decrease between 2005 and 2010, but with new investment and a French-style appellation system developed during the 1980s and in force since the 1990s, the country is once again regaining momentum in the international wine world.